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A "kombucha" avagy a marslakók reggelije?

A "kombucha", amely egy emberi fogyasztásra alkalmas gombatenyészet, fontos szerepet kaphat a jövő űrutasainak ellátásában, mert a Marson tapasztalható szélsőséges körülmények között is megél (Podolich et al., 2017a; Podolich et al., 2017b).

1990-től napjainkig "kombucha" címszó 74 szakirodalmi közleményben szerepel (1994; 1995; 1996; 2011; 2016; Aloulou et al., 2012; Banerjee et al., 2010; Barati et al., 2013; Barati et al., 2016; Bellassoued et al., 2015; Bhattacharya et al., 2016; Bhattacharya et al., 2011a; Bhattacharya et al., 2013; Bhattacharya et al., 2011b; Cetojevic-Simin et al., 2008; Chakravorty et al., 2016; Coton et al., 2017; Derk et al., 2004; Dipti et al., 2003; Dos Santos et al., 2014; Dos Santos et al., 2015; Dutta and Gachhui, 2006; Dutta and Gachhui, 2007; Ebersole et al., 2017; Ernst, 2003; Fu et al., 2015; Fu et al., 2013; Gamboa-Gomez et al., 2016; Gamundi and Valdivia, 1995; Gedela et al., 2016; Gharib, 2009; Gramza-Michalowska et al., 2016; Greenwalt et al., 2000; Hartmann et al., 2000; Hauser, 1990; Hopfe et al., 2017; Ishida, 1999; Jayabalan et al., 2008a; Jayabalan et al., 2008b; Kurtzman et al., 2001; Laier, 2000; Maghsoudi and Mohammadi, 2009; Majchrowicz, 1995; Malbasa et al., 2015; Malbasa et al., 2008; Marsh et al., 2014; Mayser et al., 1995; Murugesan et al., 2009; Neera et al., 2015; Nguyen et al., 2015; Nguyen et al., 2008; Nummer, 2013; Pauline et al., 2001; Perron et al., 1995; Phan et al., 1998; Podolich et al., 2017a; Podolich et al., 2017b; Reva et al., 2015; Sadjadi, 1998; Sai Ram et al., 2000; Semjonovs et al., 2017; Sreeramulu et al., 2000; Srinivasan et al., 1997; SungHee Kole et al., 2009; Teoh et al., 2004; Vazquez-Cabral et al., 2017; Vijayaraghavan et al., 2000; Vina et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2014; Watawana et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2010; Yapar et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2014).

A tudományos világ, láthatóan, időt és pénzt nem kímélve, törekedett a "kombucha" élettani szerepének megismerésére. A teában együtt élő gombatörzsek genetikai szerkezetét is el kezdték meghatározni DNS szekvencia analízissel (Marsh et al., 2014). Hogyan szolgálhatják tehát az emberi egészség megőrzését ezek a tenyészetek, és milyen betegség modellekben vizsgálta eddig a tudomány a jövő asztrobiológiai jelentősége mellett a "kombuchát" (Podolich et al., 2017b)?

Ahogyan közeledünk a jelenhez, mind több tudományos közlemény számol be a szigorúan, molekuláris biológiai meghatározókkal, beltartalmi adatokkal ellenőrzött mikro-gomba tenyészetek kúraszerű bevitelének, többek között májvédő és antioxidáns hatékonyságáról (Bellassoued et al., 2015; Vazquez-Cabral et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2014). Egy átfogó, több korábbi vizsgálat eredményének táblázatos összevetésével megerősíthető, hogy a gyulladásgátlás mellett számos más élettani hasznot tulajdoníthatunk a "kombucha" rendszeres fogyasztásának, amelyet az alább felsorolt élettani-, in vitro és vivo állatkísérletek bizonyítanak (Vina et al., 2014):

Szakirodalom 1990-től napjainkig

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1996. Unexplained severe illness possibly associated with consumption of Kombucha tea--Iowa, 1995. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA, 275(2): 96-8.

2011. Is Kombucha tea safe to drink? Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource, 15(7): 8.

2016. Retraction notice to "Application of the Kombucha 'Tea Fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas" [Food Chem. 194 (2016) 304-311]. Food Chem, 209: 366.

Aloulou, A. et al., 2012. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med, 12: 63.

Banerjee, D. et al., 2010. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action. Food Funct, 1(3): 284-93.

Barati, F. et al., 2013. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study. Diagn Pathol, 8: 120.

Barati, F. et al., 2016. Retraction note: Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study. Diagn Pathol, 11(1): 117.

Bellassoued, K. et al., 2015. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity. Pharm Biol, 53(11): 1699-709.

Bhattacharya, D. et al., 2016. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenolic Fraction of Kombucha Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens. Curr Microbiol, 73(6): 885-896.

Bhattacharya, S., Gachhui, R. and Sil, P.C., 2011a. Hepatoprotective properties of kombucha tea against TBHP-induced oxidative stress via suppression of mitochondria dependent apoptosis. Pathophysiology, 18(3): 221-34.

Bhattacharya, S., Gachhui, R. and Sil, P.C., 2013. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 60: 328-40.

Bhattacharya, S., Manna, P., Gachhui, R. and Sil, P.C., 2011b. Protective effect of kombucha tea against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity and cell death in murine hepatocytes. Indian J Exp Biol, 49(7): 511-24.

Cetojevic-Simin, D.D., Bogdanovic, G.M., Cvetkovic, D.D. and Velicanski, A.S., 2008. Antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of traditional Kombucha and Satureja montana L. Kombucha. J BUON, 13(3): 395-401.

Chakravorty, S. et al., 2016. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics. Int J Food Microbiol, 220: 63-72.

Coton, M. et al., 2017. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 93(5).

Derk, C.T., Sandorfi, N. and Curtis, M.T., 2004. A case of anti-Jo1 myositis with pleural effusions and pericardial tamponade developing after exposure to a fermented Kombucha beverage. Clin Rheumatol, 23(4): 355-7.

Dipti, P. et al., 2003. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea. Biomed Environ Sci, 16(3): 276-82.

Dos Santos, R.A. et al., 2014. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus Strain AF1, a High Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea. Genome Announc, 2(4).

Dos Santos, R.A. et al., 2015. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea. Genome Announc, 3(6).

Dutta, D. and Gachhui, R., 2006. Novel nitrogen-fixing Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 56(Pt 8): 1899-903.

Dutta, D. and Gachhui, R., 2007. Nitrogen-fixing and cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 57(Pt 2): 353-7.

Ebersole, B., Liu, Y., Schmidt, R., Eckert, M. and Brown, P.N., 2017. Determination of Ethanol in Kombucha Products: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.12. J AOAC Int, 100(3): 732-736.

Ernst, E., 2003. Kombucha: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 10(2): 85-7.

Fu, N., Wu, J., Lv, L., He, J. and Jiang, S., 2015. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo. Braz J Microbiol, 46(4): 1245-55.

Fu, N.F. et al., 2013. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013: 790792.

Gamboa-Gomez, C.I. et al., 2016. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium. Food Technol Biotechnol, 54(3): 367-374.

Gamundi, R. and Valdivia, M., 1995. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions]. Sidahora: 34-5.

Gedela, M., Potu, K.C., Gali, V.L., Alyamany, K. and Jha, L.K., 2016. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption. S D Med, 69(1): 26-8.

Gharib, O.A., 2009. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Chin Med, 4: 23.

Gramza-Michalowska, A., Kulczynski, B., Xindi, Y. and Gumienna, M., 2016. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 15(4): 447-457.

Greenwalt, C.J., Steinkraus, K.H. and Ledford, R.A., 2000. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects. J Food Prot, 63(7): 976-81.

Hartmann, A.M., Burleson, L.E., Holmes, A.K. and Geist, C.R., 2000. Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in c57-bl/6 mice: a pilot study. Nutrition, 16(9): 755-61.

Hauser, S.P., 1990. [Dr. Sklenar's Kombucha mushroom infusion--a biological cancer therapy. Documentation No. 18]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax, 79(9): 243-6.

Hopfe, S. et al., 2017. Leaching of rare earth elements from fluorescent powder using the tea fungus Kombucha. Waste Manag, 62: 211-221.

Ishida, Y., 1999. Kombucha. Med J Aust, 170(9): 454.

Jayabalan, R. et al., 2008a. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties. J Agric Food Chem, 56(19): 9064-71.

Jayabalan, R., Subathradevi, P., Marimuthu, S., Sathishkumar, M. and Swaminathan, K., 2008b. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation. Food Chem, 109(1): 227-34.

Kurtzman, C.P., Robnett, C.J. and Basehoar-Powers, E., 2001. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from 'Kombucha tea'. FEMS Yeast Res, 1(2): 133-8.

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Maghsoudi, H. and Mohammadi, H.B., 2009. The effect of Kombucha on post-operative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in rats. Indian J Surg, 71(2): 73-7.

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Malbasa, R. et al., 2015. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products. J Food Sci Technol, 52(9): 5968-74.

Malbasa, R., Loncar, E., Djuric, M. and Dosenovic, I., 2008. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses. Food Chem, 108(3): 926-32.

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Murugesan, G.S. et al., 2009. Hepatoprotective and curative properties of Kombucha tea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 19(4): 397-402.

Neera, Ramana, K.V. and Batra, H.V., 2015. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 176(4): 1162-73.

Nguyen, N.K., Dong, N.T., Nguyen, H.T. and Le, P.H., 2015. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha. Springerplus, 4: 91.

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Podolich, O. et al., 2017b. The First Space-Related Study of a Kombucha Multimicrobial Cellulose-Forming Community: Preparatory Laboratory Experiments. Orig Life Evol Biosph, 47(2): 169-185.

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